Annotated Bibliography on Elizabeth Blackwell

Primary Sources

Blackwell, Elizabeth, and Emily Blackwell. Address on the Medical Education of

Women. New  York: Baptist and Taylor, Book and Job Printers. 1864. Print.

This source is an address written by Elizabeth Blackwell and her
sister Emily that was presented before a meeting at the New York Infirmary. In
it Elizabeth describes the reactions of disbelief both men and women had when
she decided to go to medical school. This source will provide excellent
information on the opposition Elizabeth faced pursuing a career in a field of
primary men. The experiences shared in this article come directly from
Elizabeth which makes the source very reliable, and the details of adversity
will be useful when researching Elizabeth’s hardships.


Blackwell, Elizabeth. Scientific Method in Biology. London:

Elliot Stock, 62, Paternoster Row, E.C. 1898. Print.

This book written by Elizabeth Blackwell discusses various aspects
of scientific research such as the importance of morality and the necessity of
research. Blackwell wrote this book after she became a doctor which gives her
the proper authority to have written this material. This source demonstrates
Blackwell’s dedication to research and her career as a scientist. It will be
beneficial to my research on Elizabeth’s medical career and as an educator.


Blackwell, Elizabeth. The Pioneer Work in Opening the Medical Profession

to Women. London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1895. Print.

This book is an autobiographical source of Elizabeth Blackwell’s
life. Its contents span from Elizabeth’s early life to her return to England in
1869, and it details the struggles she faced beginning her medical career. This
source will be great for providing personal insight on what motivated Blackwell
and helped her overcome challenges. Considering the book is written by
Blackwell herself, it has good authority, and it will be a good source to pull
quotes from to add to my research.


Secondary Sources

n.p. “Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell” Changing the Face of Medicine. n.d. Web. 11 Sept.

2011. <


This source is wonderfully organized; it lists Blackwell’s
inspiration and milestones, after basic information such as her birth, and
which school she graduated from. A biography focused more on her adult life
follows. This source is useful in that the time frame is more specific to the
span of Elizabeth’s career. It details how her acceptance to Geneva was somewhat
of a joke, but she proved everyone wrong by receiving an M.D. degree. This
source will specifically be useful to my research on Blackwell’s education and


n.p. “Elizabeth Blackwell.” n.d. Web. 11 Sept. 2011.


This source offers a chronological overview of Elizabeth Blackwell’s career as a
physician and educator. It also states the various medical contributions that
she made such as the establishment of the New York Infirmary for Indigent Women
and Children and the US Sanitary Commission. This source will support my
research by giving me outline of Blackwell’s achievements and serve as a general
timeline. The source does not provide very much publication information, but
the database proves to be reliable.


Tertiary Sources

n.p. “Elizabeth Blackwell Biography” Encyclopedia of World Biography. n.d.

Web. 26 Sept. 2011.
This is an encyclopedia on Elizabeth Blackwell that has different parts
of her life divided into different sections: early life, education, career.
I also really liked the picture it displays of Elizabeth. It was useful to my
research by supporting facts that I had gotten from other sources as well
as providing any additional information. The information given is
consistent to that seen in other sources which makes it reliable.

 n.p. “Blackwell, Elizabeth.” UXL Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2003. Web.

11 Sept. 2011.<>

This encyclopedia page served as starting point for my research. It allowed me to
gain perspective on Blackwell’s life and what she’s known for (being the first
woman doctor). It gave me a basic overview of her career, and then I was able
to search for more sources. This source, unlike the other web sources, has a
publishing date which leads me to believe that the information has not been
edited since that date keeping the information consistent.


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